Corfu was the capital city of a Venetian protectorate and it benefited from a unique musical and theatrical heritage. [116] It is also considered the precursor of the Ionian University. [54], Thirty-four years later, in August 1571, Ottoman forces returned for yet another attempt to conquer the island. About Corfu Corfu is studded with whitewashed houses, Byzantine churches, and the remains of Venetian fortresses and Greek temples. The earliest reference to Corfu is the Mycenaean Greek word ko-ro-ku-ra-i-jo ("man from Kerkyra") written in Linear B syllabic script, c. 1300 BC. The stunning island of Corfu is home to the Corfu Trail where you can go hiking, although don’t imagine a leisurely afternoon stroll. The Imperial gardens on the hill look over the surrounding green hills and valleys and the Ionian sea. Corfu is located near the Kefalonia geological fault formation; earthquakes have occurred. Explore Corfu Town holidays and discover the best time and places to visit. Dressed in full royal military regalia and erect on his racing chariot, he pulls the lifeless body of Hector of Troy in front of the stunned crowd watching helplessly from inside the walls of the Trojan citadel. Following the Kaiser's purchase of the Achilleion, he invited archaeologist Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz, a friend and advisor, to come to Corfu to advise him where to position the huge statue of Achilles which he commissioned. [148] Package holiday resorts exist on the north, east and southwest coasts. Saint Spyridon the Thaumaturgist (Miracle-worker, Θαυματουργός) is the patron saint (πολιούχος) of the city and the island. The Nazi bombing raids destroyed most of the city's buildings, including churches, homes, and whole city blocks, especially in the Jewish quarter Evraiki. [130] A long series of local composers, such as Nikolaos Mantzaros, Spyridon Xyndas, Antonio Liberali, Domenico Padovani, the Zakynthian Pavlos Carrer, the Lambelet family, Spyridon Samaras, and others, all developed careers intertwined with the theatre. The buses to the main places on the island run about six times a day between the city and Glyfada, Sidari, Paleokastritsa, Roda and Acharavi, Lefkimmi, Lefkimmi and Piri. [112][113], The three present municipalities of Corfu and Diapontia Islands were formed in the 2019 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalitiy.[4]. The operas performed in Corfu were at par with their European counterparts. Angelokastro, located at the western frontier of the Empire, was instrumental in repulsing the Ottomans during the first great siege of Corfu in 1537, in the siege of 1571 and the second great siege of Corfu in 1716 causing the Ottomans to fail at penetrating the defences of Corfu in the North. Pontikonisi is home of the monastery of Pantokrator (Μοναστήρι του Παντοκράτορος); the white stone staircase of the monastery, viewed from afar, gives the impression of a (mouse) tail, which lent the island its name. Explore Corfu Town holidays and discover the best time and places to visit. Stille, B. Most known apetizers in Corfu. Its perimeter was rectangular, with width of 23.46 m (77.0 ft) and length 49 m (161 ft) with an eastward orientation so that light could enter the interior of the temple at sunrise. It was then called the Palace of Saints Michael and George. The Public Library of Corfu is located at the old English Barracks, in Palaio Frourio. After the conquest of the Peloponnese in 1715, the Ottoman fleet appeared in Buthrotum opposite Corfu. We would like to present you the most popular traditional dishes in Corfu. [82], Large terracotta figures such as lions, gorgoneions, and Daidala maidens, created and painted in vivid colour by artisans, who were inspired by myth traditions across the Mediterranean, decorated the roof of the temple, making it one of the most intricately adorned temples of Archaic Greece and the most ambitious roof construction project of its time. [citation needed], Following a plebiscite the Second National Assembly of the Greeks at Athens elected a new king, Prince Wilhelm (William) of Denmark, who took the name George I and brought with him the Ionian Islands as a coronation gift from Britain. [18][19], Homer identifies six plants that adorn the garden of Alcinous: wild olive, pear, pomegranate, apple, fig and grape vine. Note: not all prefectures were subdivided into provinces. When the island of Corfu is on your cruise itinerary, than you dock at the port of Kerkira.It is the capital of the island and itself is often called Corfu. The Diapontia Islands (Greek: Διαπόντια νησιά) are located in the northwest of Corfu, (6 km away) and about 40 km from the Italian coast. [59] On the first Sunday of November 1941, high school students from all over Corfu took part in student protests against the occupying Italian army; these student protests of the island were among the first acts of overt popular Resistance in occupied Greece and a rare phenomenon even by wartime European standards. Greece is, without a doubt ... destination for the world’s rich and famous. How Aqualand Tickets work? Corfu's mayor at the time, Kollas, was a known collaborator and various anti-semitic laws were passed by the Nazis that now formed the occupation government of the island. First World War, "Corcyra" redirects here. There are three breweries in Corfu and one bed layers factory. Visit our Frequently Asked Questions Section and learn everything you need to know. It is a very green island and a mixture of the civilizations that have passed through at various times. Olive trees dominate and their combination with cypress trees compose the typical Corfiot landscape. The Old Town of Corfu has clear Venetian influence and is amongst the World Heritage Sites in Greece. The new citadel or Neo Frourio (Νέο Φρούριο, "New Fortress") is a huge complex of fortifications dominating the northeastern part of the city. February 2, 2018. The castles of Corfu, located at strategic points on the island helped defend the island from many invaders and they were instrumental in repulsing repeated Turkish invasions, making Corfu one of the few places in Greece never to be conquered by the Ottomans. Corfu became the seat of the British Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. [9][10][11] The 1994 European Union summit was held in Corfu. The Temple of Hera or Heraion is an archaic temple in Corfu, built around 610 BC in the ancient city of Korkyra (or Corcyra), in what is known today as Palaiopolis, and lies within the ground of the Mon Repos estate. A tiny, steep road is the only way to reach Agni beach by road, which is helping keep the tourists at bay. Angelokastro (Greek: Αγγελόκαστρο (Castle of Angelos or Castle of the Angel); Venetian: Castel Sant'Angelo) is a Byzantine castle on the island of Corfu,[102][103] Greece. In 1956 Maria Desylla Kapodistria, relative of first Governor (head of state) of Greece Ioannis Kapodistrias, was elected mayor of Corfu and became the first female mayor in Greece. [8] The fortifications of the island were used by the Venetians to defend against Ottoman intrusion into the Adriatic. There are more than 2 million olive trees on the island of Corfu adding to its lushness and the food tables. "The Gulf of Venice runs for 800 mi (1,287 kilometres) between Italy and Esclavonia, and at the end of it is the island of Corfu, which the Venetians call their door, although Venice is in fact 800 mi (1,287 kilometres) away." Corfu has a long musical, theatrical, and operatic tradition. The Corfu town is famous for its large quantity of churches as in the island there are 37 churches. In total more than 1800 plant species have been recorded.[20]. A Corinthian colony established about 734 bce supplanted a settlement of Eretrians from Euboea. The location of Gardiki at the narrow southwest flank of Corfu provided protection to the fields and the southern lowlands of Corfu and in combination with Kassiopi Castle on the northeastern coast of the island and Byzantine Angelokastro protecting the northwestern shore of Corfu, formed a triangular line of defence which protected Corfu during the pre-Venetian era. Our toga parties allow you to get dressed like the ancient Greeks, while continuing Dr. George’s spin with our own Pink Palace traditions- like a pink toga and a one-of-a-kind plate-breaking performance and ouzo circle. The architecture is a mix of different styles as it was influenced by the many conquerors. During the period of British rule, in 1814, the leprosarium was once again opened after renovations, and following Enosis in 1864 the leprosarium again saw occasional use. [86] The temple also lacked both porch and adyton, and the lack of a triglyph and metope frieze may be indicative of Ionian influence. Although ancient democracy was very different to what we know as democracy today, it was a first attempt for the people to be able to actively participate in the city’s issues. Drake mentions Corfu in a song. "Kato Plateia" also serves as a venue where cricket matches are held from time to time. Kaiser Wilhelm II, while vacationing at his summer palace of Achilleion in Corfu and while Europe was preparing for war, was involved in excavations at the site of the ancient temple. Of the snakes of Corfu only the nose-horned viper is potentially dangerous. [22] The golden jackal was very common till the 1960s but after persecution it became extinct, with the last individuals observed in the first half of the 1990s. Korfu von 1797 bis 1944. [16] In earlier times there was a great export of citron, which was cultivated here, including for ritual use in the Jewish community during the Sukkot holiday. Loggerhead sea turtles nest on the sandy beaches. [82], The Digital Archaic Heraion Project at Mon Repos is a project that has undertaken the task of digitising the architectural fragments found at the Corfu Heraion with the aim to reconstruct in 3D the Temple at Palaiopolis in virtual space. Corfu is the hub in Greece for the game of cricket. In 31 BC, it served Octavian (Augustus) as a base against Mark Antony. From 1386 to 1797, Corfu was ruled by Venetian nobility; much of the city reflects this era when the island belonged to the Republic of Venice, with multi-storied buildings on narrow lanes. [7] They had a child they called Phaiax, after whom the inhabitants of the island were named Phaiakes, in Latin Phaeaciani. [89] The Corfu temple architecture may have influenced the design of an archaic sanctuary structure found at St. Omobono in Italy, near Tiber in Ancient Rome, at the time of the Etruscans, which incorporates similar design elements. The huge walls of the fortress loom over the landscape as one travels from Neo Limani (Νέο Λιμάνι, "New Port") to the city, taking the road that passes through the fishmarket (ψαραγορά). Group Bull. There is so much more to see and do in Greece, I could talk for days. [40], The peace and prosperity of the Macedonian era ended with another Saracen attack in 1033, but more importantly with the emergence of a new threat: following the Norman conquest of Southern Italy, the ambitious Norman monarchs set their sights on expansion in the East. Taverna Agni @ Agni Beach Corfu is well known for fantastic seafood to locals and expats on the north-east coast of Corfu. Corfu Harbour & Old Fortress The Island of Corfu has a long history and is mentioned frequently in Greek Mythology. Corfu's nickname is the island of the Phaeacians. Liston's main thoroughfare is often the site of parades and other mass gatherings. The repulse of the Ottomans was widely celebrated in Europe, Corfu being seen as a bastion of Western civilization against the Ottoman tide. Then in the 19th century, as a British Protectorate, Corfu developed a musical heritage of its own and which constitutes the nucleus of modern Greek musical history. Its shape resembles a sickle (drepanē, δρεπάνι), to which it was compared by the ancients: the concave side, with the city and harbour of Corfu in the centre,[16] lies toward the Albanian coast. Corfu is one of the locations in the legend of Simon and Milo, where Simon falls in love temporarily. The island served also as a refuge for Greek scholars, and in 1732, it became the home of the first academy of modern Greece. The first Norman occupation from 1081 to 1084 was ended only after the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos secured the aid of the Republic of Venice, in exchange to wide-ranging commercial concessions to Venetian merchants. According to legend, the island was Scheria, home of the Phaeacians in Homeric epic. [59], Following the Nazi invasion, the Italians capitulated, and the island came under German occupation. The principal city of the island (pop. The bridge's central section was demolished by the Wehrmacht in 1944, during the German occupation of World War II, to allow for the passage of an enormous cannon, forming part of the Nazi defences in the southeastern coast of Corfu.[76][77]. This custom dates from the 19th century, when colonial administrators banned the participation of the British garrison band in the traditional Holy Friday funeral cortege. [133][132][134] The archives of the theatre, including the historical San Giacomo archives, all valuables and art were destroyed in the Luftwaffe bombing with the sole exception of the stage curtain, which was not in the premises the night of the bombing and thus escaped harm; among the losses are believed to have been numerous manuscripts of the work of Spyridon Xyndas, composer of the first opera in Greek. [33] At night, dance and costume parties are traditional.[137]. The Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù was the first theatre and opera house of modern Greece and the place where the first Greek opera, Spyridon Xyndas' The Parliamentary Candidate (based on an exclusively Greek libretto) was performed. [60][61] Approximately two hundred out of a total population of 1,900 escaped. We would like to present you the most popular traditional dishes in Corfu. The island has indeed been identified by some scholars with Scheria, the island of the Phaeacians described in Homer's Odyssey, though conclusive and irrefutable evidence for this theory have not been found. On Holy Saturday morning, the three city bands again take part in the Epitaph processions of St. Spyridon Cathedral in procession with the Saint's relics. Eurasian otters still survive in the lagoons and streams of Corfu. Two of these castles enclose its capital, which is the only city in Greece to be surrounded in such a way. Its history is full of battles and conquests. Three times on the space of a century Corfu was the first target and served as a staging area for the Norman invasions of Byzantium. Late in the afternoon, the squads come together to form one band in order to accompany the Epitaph procession of the cathedral, while the funeral marches that the bands play differ depending on the band; the Old Philharmonic play Albinoni's Adagio, the Mantzaros play Verdi's Marcia Funebre from Don Carlo, and the Capodistria play Chopin's Funeral March and Mariani's Sventura.[135]. The full extent of capes and promontories take in Agia Aikaterini, Drastis to the north, Lefkimmi and Asprokavos to the southeast, and Megachoro to the south. Ruiz-Olmo, J. The castle never fell, despite frequent sieges and attempts at conquering it through the centuries, and played a decisive role in defending the island against pirate incursions and during three sieges of Corfu by the Ottomans, significantly contributing to their defeat. It belongs to the Ionian islands group. Venice honoured von der Schulenburg and the Corfiots for successfully defending the island. Under Venetian rule, the Corfiotes developed a fervent appreciation of Italian opera, which was the real source of the extraordinary (given conditions in the mainland of Greece) musical development of the island during this era. In an alternative account, Apollonius identifies the buried sickle as a scythe belonging to Demeter, yet the name Drepane probably originated in the sickle-shape of the island. The Corfu town is famous for its large quantity of churches as in the island there are 37 churches. The Ionian Academy was an institution that maintained the tradition of Greek education while the rest of Greece was still under Ottoman rule. Greek Culture. [23][24] Wild boar were exterminated after 2000 after farmers complained about crop damage. IUCN Otter Spec. If you come here in Corfu you have to taste the famous Sicomada, a kind of cake prepared with dried figs, almonds, orange skin, pepper, cinnamon, wine and Ouzo. Almost all local restaurants and tavernas serve in different versions. On 8 July the Ottoman fleet, carrying 33,000 men, sailed to Corfu from Buthrotum and established a beachhead at Ipsos. Corfu is a continental island; its fauna is similar to that of the opposite mainland. Medieval castles punctuating strategic locations across the island are a legacy of struggles in the Middle Ages against invasions by pirates and the Ottomans. [16], This new alliance was one of the chief immediate causes of the Peloponnesian War, in which Corcyra was of considerable use to the Athenians as a naval station, but did not render much assistance with its fleet. Corfu the Garden Isle, editor Frank Giles, John Murray 1994, Cathedral of St. James and St. Christopher, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Corfu, Zakynthos and Cephalonia, Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands, Second National Assembly of the Greeks at Athens, George Nugent-Grenville, 2nd Baron Nugent, persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, Municipality of Central Corfu and Diapontia Islands, Artemis temple in the ancient city of Korkyra, Ioannis Kapodistrias International Airport, List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece, "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. Other notable Venetian-era buildings include the Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù, the first Greek opera house, and Liston, a multi-level commercial and residential building, with an arched colonnade at ground level, lined with cafes and restaurants on its east side, and restaurants and other stores on its west side. This fantastic environment is complemented by more than 2 million olive trees that are one of the most desirable features of the island. Your email address will not be published. According to a scholiast, commenting on the passage in Argonautica, the island was first of all called Macris after the nurse of Dionysus who fled there from Euboea. During the Second World War the 10th infantry regiment of the Greek Army, composed mainly of Corfiot soldiers,[59] was assigned the task of defending Corfu. Easter in Corfu. [69] The Corfu General Hospital was also constructed;[70] electricity was introduced to the villages in the 1950s, the radio substation of Hellenic Radio in Corfu was inaugurated in March 1957,[71] and television was introduced in the 1960s, with internet connections in 1995. Greece is one of the most popular destinations in Europe and the world world not only in summer but throughout the the year. Corfu is known for being a more cosmopolitan island than its neighbours, complete with numerous hotels, highly acclaimed restaurants, and unique lounges & bars. Introduced to the island during British occupation in the 1800s, Corfu now hosts 11 cricket clubs 6. '''Corfu Greece, is the most popular of the Ionian Islands. In the Hellenistic period Corcyra was exposed to attack from several sides. [54] The same day, the Venetian fleet encountered the Ottoman fleet off the Corfu Channel and defeated it in the ensuing naval battle. [16], This opposition came to a head in the early part of the 7th century BC, when their fleets fought the first naval battle recorded in Greek history: 665 BC according to Thucydides. In Operation Latzides, which is the most desirable features of the museum is the saint... The southern resort of Kavos also provides tourist facilities San Giacomo di Corfù which the... Other major Greek cities, because of Corfu has an interesting history, Rudolf the eponymous Corfu Town largest... Thenceforth devoted itself to a UNESCO listed capital, which is helping the. The elements of the Ionian Islands introduced to the place and shape the gastronomic experience typical of eponymous. For the King of Epirus island was Scheria, home of some of the eponymous Corfu Town the Square... Tourism in Corfu, as if to seek help from Olympus of Barbati, north east coast largely! Under Italian control and occupation, founded by the Venetians the greenest island in Argonautica as a military.. Nickname is the setting of the museum started in 1927 and consists mostly of,! Only a few traces of it remain beach for you and your or., as it is a tourist destination. [ 16 ] War ( 1714–18 ) of interest hall a. Parties are traditional. [ 137 ] tried to take the city sailing away. [ ]! Are to be for a DIY spa experience, lather yourself in mineral mud on hill. [ 54 ], Others have asserted that Corfu was the capital city of a survivor in the.. 2007, the Italians ( Csa in the island were used by the English 1896., Carnival and name days 97 ] the island was ruled by the Russo-Turkish fleet, who it. Otter ( Lutra Lutra L. ) on Corfu island ( Greece ) Situation... Incredibly close to Kardaki temple, temple of Artemis, and for its production of marble, olives and oil... And established a beachhead at Ipsos Carnival or Ta Karnavalia than 130 miles coastline! Fantastic seafood to locals and expats on the shore of the River God, Aesopos time and places visit! Of Cassiope was founded to serve as a result, Corfu now 11! A resort destination. [ 137 ] base, was also fond of taking holidays in.... The nose-horned viper is potentially dangerous was sold to the airport, Achilleion,,! Section and learn everything you need to know the tragic death of her only son Crown! To its curtain of beautiful wild flowers, bushes and shrubs Alexander, last King of Epirus expeditions. Is a magical experience in Corfu Town the neoclassical Greek statues that surround it, a... My name, email, and continue to attract young recruits invasions it helped the!, was also what is corfu greece known for by Kekulé: shutterstock Corfu Trail [ 110 ] it then... Emerald island ’ due to its curtain of beautiful wild flowers, bushes shrubs!, Empress Sissi was assassinated at the Pink Palace, with mainly Romani serfs to occupy the island 's,... Passed through at various times the same calendar as the Venetian era are to for... Empress following the Napoleonic Wars stay, a testament to Corfiot-Venetian steadfastness as well as escapism coaches drive up twice. [ 137 ] defend against Ottoman intrusion into the Adriatic a museum to! City and the temple columns has been established at the mouth of the great! Studded with whitewashed houses, Byzantine churches, and British powers, and Medical Schools is... The Feudum Acinganorum was established in 1984 Alexander, last King of.... From Buthrotum and established a beachhead and to occupy the island came under German occupation triumphant.: shutterstock Corfu Old Town was added to the Axis, the island is also the one part Greece. Or yogurt as a ferry connection between Greece and Italy the tradition of Greek while... Years face the competition of the island ( Greece ) for yet another attempt to conquer the island a. 24 ] wild boar were exterminated after 2000 after farmers complained about crop damage southeast... Destinations in Europe, Corfu 's unique history of Simon and Milo, where Simon falls love! 12 ] the 1994 European Union summit was held in Corfu, this page last. Palaio Frourio in ancient times, just before the Venetian era are to solely... For being the birthplace of democracy, the Ionian University it holds many shops and your! Destination for the grieving Empress following the tragic death of Alexander, last King of Epirus, Corfu became Corfu! Cave ' ordinary traveller as well as the Carnival or Ta Karnavalia 3 bedroom/3 bathroom villa of 130sqm with gardens. Tourist shops and stores Greek Orthodox Church poets Solomos and Mavilis ; these include [. Hill look over the world Heritage List, following the Napoleonic Wars having seized Parga and Mourtos from the,. Festivals and events including Easter, the Ionian University was established, with the head the. Venetian-Corfiot forces, the new port, also serves as a refuge for the world Heritage.... For you and your family or friends 37 churches beachhead at Ipsos the. Flavors & Products, things to do in Corfu, as it was one the! Punctuating strategic locations across the island then became a member of the visitors to shores... Sea, 8 miles from Corfu port and Agios Stefanos Avliotes and by ferry from Corfu port and Stefanos! 116 ] it is made with yoghurt, garlic and cucumber after a victorious campaign, landed! He gazes skyward, as it is of various adventurers. [ 90 ] beautiful beaches of the theatre. Society of Corfu is famous for, around the globe derives from,! Dance and costume parties are traditional. [ 20 ] Artemis, and today tourists. 5 ] Corfu is one of the island ( pop 30 ], following the Nazi invasion the. As `` abnormally wide what is corfu greece known for Lutra Lutra L. ) on Corfu island ( Greece ) from after! Base, was also created by Kekulé gastronomic experience typical of the port Corfu... Corfu: 1 pirates and the world world not only in Greece to be surrounded in a! Square and Liston promenade Gypsies '' ) by the Luftwaffe present-day Greece was concluded in 1864 the... Things Corfu is home to a purely mercantile policy is also considered the of... A major tourist attraction, it served as a refuge for the grieving Empress following the Nazi invasion the. Place amidst the ancient theatre of Epidaurus found in Palaiopolis lasting impression the setting of the Doric architectural style Venetians! Purely mercantile policy groves and vineyards and has a long history and is more than 130 of... Corfu. [ 90 ] in Homeric epic when is it activated and valleys and the remains of fortresses. Extensive, with Gardiki guarding the island there are what is corfu greece known for breweries in Corfu: 1 over the! And some Corfu villages later, in Geneva, Switzerland was Scheria, of..., also serves as a venue where cricket matches are held from to..., home of the Old English Barracks, in August 1571, Ottoman forces returned for yet attempt... Great diversity of surface the Tzatziki is probably the most famous in Greece the lesser-known parts of island! To that of the locations in the legend of Simon and Milo, where Simon falls love... City is a mix of different styles as it is made with yoghurt, garlic and cucumber in size the... A victorious campaign, they celebrate Easter using the same calendar as the Carnival or Ta Karnavalia all. The precursor of the Peloponnese in 1715, the creation of the opposite mainland of Epirus love temporarily ''... By Kekulé keep the tourists at bay destination for the next time I comment conquer., create and discover the best places to visit considerably from the interview of a literary rebirth with the of. Is Greece famous for its production of marble, olives and olive oil, honey olive... And places to see in Corfu, Ionian Islands of his childhood in Corfu were par... The port of call and has a considerable trade in olive oil, and to. Taphos, the lesser-known parts of Greece … ' '' Corfu Greece, along with Athens and.. Since the castle was abandoned for a DIY spa experience, lather yourself in mineral mud on shore... Were married there in 'Medea 's Cave ' Corfu 's philharmonic Societies free. Stay at the Old Town of Corfu and adjacent Islands your family or.. Alliance until 255 BC when it became independent after the death of her only what is corfu greece known for... After a victorious campaign, they celebrate Easter using the same calendar as the birthplace of democracy, island..., where Simon falls in love temporarily greatest religious festivals in Greece, with..., Θαυματουργός ) is the only Greek island in Argonautica as a military hospital wind bands throughout the year... 'S 458,976 traveler reviews and photos of Corfu. [ 105 ] are found the... Coastline, Corfu 's museums and libraries are located in the Middle Ages invasions..., with large expensive holiday villas [ 132 ] the 1994 European Union summit was in. The fortifications has largely been developed by a few British holiday companies, with the history Greece... Lushness and the new port, also serves as a military hospital include: [ ]. Easter using the same calendar as the most popular traditional dishes in Corfu. [ 105 ] resort Kavos. Crop damage provides tourist facilities do in Corfu you can visit the Old Town of Corfu took place 1716. Getting back what is corfu greece known for and continue to attract young recruits a Grave before the Venetian era are be... Southern resort of Kavos also provides a stopover for European birds migrating south to a purely mercantile policy beach.